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References to twin studies of homosexuality, together with more general material concerning twin studies, statistical methods, behaviour genetics, human sociobiology, and theories of the aetiology of homosexuality.

Abe, K., Moran, P. A. P., "Parental Age of Homosexuals" Brit J Psychiat. 1969;115:313-317

Ainslie, R. C., "The Psychology of Twinship" 1985, University of Nebraska Press

Bailey, J. M., Pillard, R. C., "A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation" in Arch Gen Psychiat. 1991;48:1089-1096

Bell, A. P., Weinberg, M. S., Hammersmith, S. K., "Sexual Preference: Its Development in Man and Woman" 1981, Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press

Bene, E., "On the Genesis of Female Homosexuality" Brit J Psychiat. 1965;111:815-821

Bene, E., "On the Genesis of Male Homosexuality: An Attempt at Clarifying the Role of the Parents" Brit J Psychiat. 1965;111:803-813

Bullough, V. L., "Sexual Variance in Society and History" 1976, New York: John Wiley & Sons

Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., Tellegen, A., "Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart" Science 1990;250:223-228

Buhrich, N. J., Bailey, J. M., Martin, N. G., "Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, and Sex-Dimorphic Behaviors in Male Twins" Behav. Genet. 1991;21:75-96

Davison, K., Brierly, H., Smith, C., "A Male Monozygotic Twinship Discordant for Homosexuality" Brit J Psychiat. 1971;118:675-682

Dörner, G., Schenk, B., Schmiedel, B., Ahrens, L., "Stressful Events in Prenatal Life of Bisexual and Homosexual Men" Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1983;81:83-87

Eckert, E. D., Bouchard, T. J., Bohlen, J., Heston, L. L., "Homosexuality in Monozygotic Twins Reared Apart" Brit J Psychiat. 1986;148:421-425

Ehrhardt, A. A., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Rosen, L. R., Feldman, J. F., Veridiano, N. P., Zimmerman, I., McEwen, B. S., "Sexual Orientation after Prenatal Exposure to Exogenous Estrogens" Arch Sex Behav. 1985;14:57-77

Ellis, L., Ames, M. A., "Neurohormonal Functioning and Sexual Orientation: A Theory of Homosexuality - Heterosexuality" Psychol Bull. 1987;101:233-258

Eysenck, H. J., "The Structure and Measurement of Intelligence" 1979, Berlin: Springer-Verlag

Eysenck, H. J., Kamin, L., "Intelligence: The Battle for the Mind" 1981, London: Pan Books

Farber, S. L., "Identical Twins Reared Apart: A Reanalysis" 1981, Basic Books Inc.

Fay, R. E., Turner, C. F., Klassen, A. D., Gagnon, J. H., "Prevalence and Patterns of Same-Gender Sexual Contact Among Men" Science 1989;243:338-348

Freud, S., "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" in Strachey, J. (ed.) "The Complete Psychological Works of Freud (Vol. 7)" 1953, London: Holgarth

Friedman, R. C., Wolleson, F., Tendler, R., "Psychological Development and Blood Levels of Sex Steroids in Male Identical Twins of Divergent Sexual Orientation" J Nerv Ment Dis. 1976;163:282-288

Friedman, R. C., "Male Homosexuality: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective" 1988, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press

Fuller, J. L., Thompson, W. R., "Foundations of Behavior Genetics" 1978, The C. V. Mosby Co.

Gottesman, I. I., "Developmental Genetics and Ontogenetic Psychology" in A. Pick (ed.) "Minnesota Symposium of Child Psychology" 1974, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press pp 55-80

Gottesman, I. I., Carey, G., "Extracting Meaning and Direction from Twin Data" Psychiatr Dev. 1983;1:35-50

Green, R., "The 'Sissy Boy Syndrome' and the Development of Homosexuality" 1987, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press

Green, R., Stoller, R. J., "Two Monozygotic (Identical) Twin Pairs Discordant for Gender Identity" Arch Sex Behav. 1971;1:321-327

Habel, H., "Zwillingsuntersuchungen an Homosexuellen" Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung 1950;1:168-180

Henry, G. W., "Sex Variants: A Study of Homosexual Patterns" 1941, New York: Paul B. Hoeber

Heston, L. L., Shields, J., "Homosexuality in Twins - A Family Study and a Registry Study" Arch Gen Psychiat. 1968;18:149-160

Holden, H. M., "Psychotherapy of a Shared Syndrome in Identical Twins" Brit J Psychiat. 1965;111:859-864

Joseph, E. D., Tabor, J. H., "The Simultaneous Analysis of a Pair of Identical Twins and the Twinning Reaction" Psychoanal Study Child. 1961;16:275-299

Kallmann, F. J., "Comparative Twin Study on the Genetic Aspects of Male Homosexuality" J Nerv Ment Dis. 1952;115:283-298

Kallmann, F. J., "Twin and Sibship Study of Overt Male Homosexuality" Am J Hum Genet. 1952;4:136-146

Kallmann, F. J., "Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder" 1953, New York: Norton. pp 116-119

Kendler, K. S., "Limitations of the Ratio of Concordance Rates in Monozygotic Twins and Dizygotic Twins" Arch Gen Psychiat. 1989;46:477-478

Kendler, K. S., Eaves, L. J., "The Estimation of Probandwise Concordance in Twins: The Effect of Unequal Ascertainment" Acta Genet Med Gemellol. (Roma) 1989;38:253-270

Kenyon, F. E., "Studies in Female Homosexuality - IV & V" Brit J Psychiat. 1968;114:1337-1350

Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" 1948, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company

Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., Gebhard, P., "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" 1953, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company

Kirsch, J. A. W., Rodman, J. E., "Selection and Sexuality: The Darwinian View of Homosexuality" in Paul W., Weinrich, J. D., Gonsiorek, J. C., Hotvedt, M. E. (eds.) "Homosexuality: Social, Psychological and Biological Issues" 1982, Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. pp 183-195

Klintworth, G. K., "A Pair of Male Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Homosexuality" J Nerv Ment Dis. 1962;135:113-125

Koch, G., "Die Bedeutung Genetischer Faktoren für das Menschliche Verhalten" Ärzliche Praxis 1965;17:823 and 839-846

Krafft-Ebing, R. "Psychopathia Sexualis" 1922, Brooklyn: New York Phys. and Surg. Book Co. & 1924, Stuttgart: F. Enke

Lange, J., "Verbrechen als Schicksal: Studien an Kriminallen Zwillingen" 1929, Leipzig: Georg Thieme Verlag. pp 96. English translation by C. Haldane in Lange, J., "Crime as Destiny: A Study of Criminal Twins" 1931, London: Allen and Unwin. pp 143-145, 154-160

LeVay, S., "A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men" Science 1991;253:1034-1037

Lewes, K., "The Psychoanalytic Theory of Male Homosexuality" 1989, London: Quartet Books

Loehlin, J. C., Lindzey, G., Spuhler, J. N., "Race Differences in Intelligence" 1975, W. H. Freeman & Co.

Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Tellegen, A., "Recruitment Bias in Twin Research: The Rule of Two-Thirds Reconsidered" Behav. Genet. 1987;17:343-362

McConaghy, N., Armstrong, M. S., Birrel, P. C., Buhrich, N., "The Incidence of Bisexuality and Opposite Sex Behavior in Medical Students" J Nerv Ment Dis. 1979;167:685-688

McConaghy, N., Blaszczynski, A., "A Pair of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Homosexuality, Sex-Dimorphic Behaviour and Penile Volume Responses" Arch Sex Behav. 1980;9:123-131

Mesnikoff, A. M., Rainer, J. D., Kolb, L. C., Carr, A. C., "Intrafamilial Determinants of Divergent Sexual Behaviour in Twins" Am J Psychiat. 1963;119:732-738

Money, J., Schwartz, M., Lewis, V. G., "Adult Erotosexual Status and Fetal Hormonal Masculinization and Demasculinization" Psychoneuroendocrinology 1984;9:405-414

Myers, M. F., "Homosexuality, Sexual Dysfunction, and Incest in Male Identical Twins" Canadian J Psychiat. 1982;27:144-147

Oakes, M., "Statistical Inference: A Commentary for the Social and Behavioural Sciences" 1986, John Wiley & Sons

Pardes, H., Stinberg, J., Simons, R. C., "A Rare Case of Overt and Mutual Homosexuality in Female Identical Twins" Psychiat. Quart. 1967;41:108-133

Parker, N., "Homosexuality in Twins: A Report of Three Discordant Pairs" Brit J Psychiat. 1964;110:489-495

Perkins, M. W., "Homosexuality in Female Monozygotic Twins" Behav. Genet. 1973;3:387-388

Pillard, R. C., Poumadere, J., Carretta, R. A., "Is Homosexuality Familial? A Review, Some Data, and a Suggestion" Arch Sex Behav. 1981;10:465-475

Pillard, R. C., Weinrich, J. D., "Evidence of Familial Nature of Male Homosexuality" Arch Gen Psychiat. 1986;43:808-812

Plomin, R. "The Role of Inheritance in Behaviour" Science 1990;248:183-188

Rainer, J. D., Mesnikoff, A., Kolb, L. C., Carr, A., "Homosexuality and Heterosexuality in Identical Twins" (including a discussion by F. J. Kallmann) Psychosom Med. 1960;22:251-259

Reinisch, J. M., "The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex" 1991, New York: Penguin Books

Rosenthal, D., "Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior" 1970, New York: McGraw-Hill

Rosenthal, D., "Genetics of Psychopathology" 1971, New York: McGraw-Hill

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., "Essentials of Behavioral Research. Methods and Data Analysis" 1984, New York: McGraw-Hill

Ruse, M., "Are there Gay Genes? Sociobiology and Homosexuality" J Homosex. 1981;6:5-34

Ruse, M., "Homosexuality" 1988, Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Sanders, J. "Homosexuelle Zwillingen" Genetica 1934;16:401-434

Siegelman, M., "Birth Order and Family Size of Homosexual Men and Women" J Consult Clin Psychol. 1973;41:164

Slater, E. "Birth Order and Maternal Age of Homosexuals" Lancet 1962;1:69-71

Smith, P. K., "Human Sociobiology" in Psychology Survey No. 4, 1983, Nicholson, J., Foss, B., (eds.) British Psychological Society

Zuger, B., "Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Homosexuality: Report of a Pair and Significance of the Phenomenon" Comp Psychiat. 1976;17:661-669

Zuger, B., "A Neglected Source-Book on Homosexuality" Brit J Psychiat. 1978;133:87-88

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